Personal violence was an endemic problem for Early Modern societies, since both elites and the upwardly mobile acted according to codes of honor rooted in the past. Two cultures, Early Modern Spain and Japan, handled this problem in outwardly similar manners. While governments imposed strict penalties on personal violence, martial artists in both societies created systems of combat that addressed not only the immediate physical concerns of their students, but also their spiritual and psychological needs. By analyzing and comparing 16th century Spanish and 17th century Japanese fencing manuals I will illustrate the manner in which different cultures dealt with this problem. I will also reference studies about personal violence from the fields of Japanese history and anthropology.
A great deal of research has recently emerged regarding the concepts of agency, intentionality, and Free Will. In The Illusion of Conscious Will (2002), Dan Wegner asserts that people believe they cause their own actions in a way that is concurrent with the theory of Free Will (Wegner, 2002). I believe that a lay theory of agency varies by culture. I describe Americans understanding of agency as purposeful and Asians understanding as adaptive. My hypothesis is based on cross cultural research that shows that Asians and Americans have different understandings of the Self (Markus and Kitayama, 1991), causality (Morris and Peng, 1994), and the importance of choice in life (Iyengar and Lepper, 1999). My research this summer will consist of a survey study in both Beijing and Berkeley.
The growing cooperative movement in Argentina, emerging out of the economic crisis of 2001, presents an interesting opportunity to study the ways in which the cooperative is modeled and understood in the context of a capitalist economy. For two months I will look at the model put forth by the four-star Hotel Bauen. Specifically, I will examine how the cooperative is understood and how that understanding is affecting and affected by the consumer tourist market to which it caters. To this end, I will conduct a series of interviews and surveys to understand the effects of the relatively new cooperative structure of the hotel on the type of clientele that it attracts. As well as the ways that cooperativism as a practice and an ideology is shaped by the necessary commodification of its enterprise in order to secure a niche in a consumer tourist market.
My research project addresses the important questions of how new forms of governance are emerging in response to the growing challenges of urban management in many parts of the third world. Specifically, I will investigate the newest forms of solid waste management initiatives in Argentina put forth by the World Bank, the national and provincial governments of Argentina, local cooperatives and private agenciesand the extent to which these organizational forms can actualize participatory development goals. As hundreds of thousands of Argentinos have taken to picking and sorting trash as a means for survival, it is increasingly important to assess how these new networks of urban and regional governance are bridging the private-public divideand ultimately whether the interests of the intended beneficiaries are truly being included in development projects.
Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are playing an increasing role in the economic development of the global south. Bangladesh in particular is a country in which NGOs have emerged as a huge portion of the countrys source of development aid. I will be examining two particular organizations in Bangladesh. Both organizations allocate funding to NGOs. The first acts somewhat like a bank for NGOs by using loans it received from the government, to loan money to NGOs, which in turn give micro credit loans to villagers. The other organization also acts as a funding mechanism for NGOs, but it gives money to organizations through grants rather than loans. I will be investigating these two funding models in order to see how funding sources influence the kind of projects that NGOs pick up. In order to do so, I will be comparing these organizations original stated missions and see how their projects have […]
I am interested in verifying the existing research on the correlations between Tibetan Buddhist sacred knowledge and Native American sacred knowledge. I will focus specifically on Hopi Indian knowledge. I intend to explore the relationship between practices, beliefs and their metaphysical understanding of the world. Additionally I will investigate the idea of being connected to all things, a belief that they share; looking at how this process manifests itself from an internal to an external awareness or vice versa. Ultimately I would like to know the significance of their correlations and how they can contribute to Western Science. I will spend one month working with Hopi Indian material, as well as one month working with Tibetan Buddhist material. I will use primary and secondary texts, oral histories, teachings and interviews.
The religious and phantasmagorical realms of Dantes Inferno and Hans Christian Andersens fairy tales have fascinated generations of readers to enter into a phantasmagorical realm whereby magic and metaphor camouflage a rather fanatic quest for redemption. Through physical mutilations and psychological torture, these stories have condemned fictional female subjects to punitive action as a means of depicting the omnipotence God. Through biographical and autobiographical records, textual analysis, and literary discourse surrounding Dante Alighieri and Hans Christian Andersens distinct authorships, my research seeks to further examine the ways by which these authors fictional female subjects are silenced and inscribed within a liminal space of patriarchal standards of morality.
Changes in cellular programming are often thought to be mediated by changes in regulation at the level of transcription. However, there is increasing evidence that changes in the regulation of translation may play an equally important role in the reprogramming process. In our lab, we have found that the transition from a vegetative to invasive physiology in the yeast S. cerevisiae requires a novel mode of regulation of translation. I recently identified a protein, Asc1, which is required for this transition and potentially acts directly at the level of translation. My research will focus on elucidating the specific role of Asc1 in this transition as well as identifying other reprogramming events in which it may be involved.
Past research by Shelton, Richeson, and Salvatore (2005) has shown that minority group members feel less authentic interacting with people outside of their ethnic group than with their in-group. There are many reasons why people feel inauthentic during such interactions, but one likely part of the explanation is based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997). This theorizes that people interact with the world in two ways. People who are promotion focused gear themselves toward aspirations and gains; conversely, prevention focused people vigilantly avoid negative outcomes (Seibt & Forster, 2004). In my project I will test the hypothesis that stigmatized people who interact with someone outside of that group become more prevention focused and less promotion focused which leads them to modify their behavior and feel less authentic.